## What are some examples of cool things that Klampt can do?¶

1. Collects (nearly) all of the robotics essentials in a single software package. Visualization, kinematics, inverse kinematics, dynamics, collision detection, planning, and control are tightly integrated and easy to use. The days of installing several packages just to solve an IK problem are over!
2. Robust physics simulation without the pain. (Or at least, with less pain.) Robots can be imported directly using their CAD models without having to define bounding volumes.
3. Really simple visual debugging. With only a couple lines of code, you can see motions, configurations, geometries, and transforms, and even edit them.
4. Well-supported file I/O. Almost all Klampt objects can be saved to disk, browsed visually, and loaded from disk in a single line of code. This makes it super easy to share data between programs, and to build large software systems with points, transforms, configurations, and paths treated as “assets”.
5. Integrated handling of multiple geometry types. Klamp’t handles triangle meshes, point clouds, geometric primitives, and implicit surfaces. They can be used in collision detection, planning, and even simulation without preprocessing.
6. Deploy robotics code using Jupyter notebook. The robot and world can be visualized, modified, and simulated in 3D (using WebGL) inside the notebook, and you can let collaborators modify parameters to rapidly see the results.
7. Make thousands of slightly different worlds, and simulate robot behavior in all of them. Copying Klamp’t worlds is very cheap! Moreover, you can save all the simulation trajectories and browse them easily.

## Should I learn the Python bindings or C++?¶

This is mostly a matter of preference. Python tends to be cleaner, easier to use, and faster for prototyping. However, the Python bindings provide a subset of the C++ functionality.

## Where should I get started learning the Klampt API?¶

The best place to start learning would be to get a sense of the organization of the library, and then to learn the modeling functions. You should be comfortable with the concepts of the WorldModel, RobotModel, RigidObjectModel, and TerrainModel classes, and their file structure. Browsing the data directory in the Klampt-examples repository will help you become familiarized with what is possible.

It is also essential to become comfortable with visualization to be able to visualize whether your programs are making sense.

After this, depending on your interests, most people choose one of three routes:

1. Low-level simulation and control functionality
2. Medium-level trajectory representation, execution tools (klampt.model.trajectory.path_to_trajectory(), klampt.model.trajectory.execute_trajectory()) and inverse kinematics and Cartesian path execution.
3. High-level motion planning tools.

## My simulator goes unstable and/or crashes. Help!¶

There are two reasons that the simulator may go unstable: 1) the simulated robot is controlled in an inherently unstable manner, or 2) rigid body simulation artifacts due to poor collision handling or numerical errors. The second reason may also cause ODE to crash, typically on Linux systems. In testing we have found that configuring ODE with double precision fixes such crashes.

Unstable robot: an unstably controlled robot will oscillate and jitter, and if these oscillations become violent enough they may also cause rigid body simulation instability/crashing. If the robot goes unstable, then its PID constants and dryFriction/viscousFriction terms need to be tuned. These values must be set carefully in order to avoid oscillation and, ideally should be calibrated against the physical motors’ behavior. This is currently an entirely manual process that must be done for every new robot. As a rule of thumb, large PID damping terms are usually problematic, and should be emulated as viscous friction.

Collision handling errors: Klamp’t uses a contact handling method wherein each mesh is wrapped within a thin boundary layer that is used for collision detection. When objects make contact only along their boundary layers, the simulation is robust, but if their underlying meshes penetrate one another, then the simulator must fall back to less robust contact detection methods. This occurs if objects are moving too quickly or light objects in contact are subject to high compressive forces. If this happens, Klamp’t will print a warning of the form “ODECustomMesh: Triangles penetrate margin X, cannot trust contact detector”. The simulator status will also return “unreliable.”

To avoid penetration, there are two remedies: 1) increase the thickness of the boundary layer, or 2) make the boundary layer stiffer. See the Simulation section of the Klamp’t Manual for more details on how to implement these fixes.

## The simulator runs slowly. How can I make it faster?¶

Unless you are simulating a huge number of joints, the limiting steps in simulation are usually contact detection and calculating the contact response.

The speed of contact detection is governed by the resolution of the meshes in contact. Simpler meshes will lead to faster contact detection. Most 3D modeling packages will provide mesh simplification operators.

The speed of contact response is governed by the number of contact points retained in the contact handling procedure after clustering. The maxContacts simulation parameter governs the number of clusters and can be reduced to achieve a faster simulation. However, setting this value too low will lead to a loss of physical realism.

## How do I tune PID gains for my robot?¶

The easiest way is to tune them manually in the .rob or .urdf file while observing the response to forces applied with the mouse in klampt_sim. Some tips include

• If the simulation goes unstable, turn kD to 0, and increase the dryFriction and viscousFriction terms until it stabilizes.
• All terms for a joint should be proportional to the amount of mass controlled by it (F = MA). As a result, gains for joints controlling small elements (like a finger) will be much smaller than joints controlling large elements (like a shoulder).
• kP will often be much larger than kD or kI (2 or 3 orders of magnitude).
• If your joints don’t move as commanded, the dryFriction and viscousFriction terms are too large.
• Start fine-tuning distal links (those farther from the root) and then proceed toward the root.

If you have built from source, and have data from your real robot, you can also use the MotorCalibrate program.see the tutorial here for instructions.

## How do I implement a behavior script?¶

Many engineers and students tend to approach robotics from a “scripting” approach, whereby a complex behavior is broken down into a script or state machine of painstakingly hand-tuned, heuristic behaviors. Unlike some other packages, Klamp’t does not try to make scripting convenient. This choice was made deliberately in order to discourage the use of heuristic behaviors. The philosophy is that hand-tuned behaviors should be rare in intelligent robots. However, it is true that scripts / state machines are sometimes the easiest way to accomplish a given behavior with the current generation of robot AI tools.

To implement a behavior script in Klamp’t, the script should be run in a separate thread from the execution thread. It can then monitor the state of the execution thread (e.g., waiting for a movement to finish) and react accordingly. The multithreaded visualization available in Linux and Windows is very convenient for this. See the visualization documentation for instructions and examples.

To implement a state machine, a controller should manually maintain and simulate its behavior in its feedback loop. A framework for such controllers is the StateMachineController class in Python/control/controller.py.